Tag Archives: soybeans

Corn was rated 55% in good-to-excellent condition, down 3 percentage points from 58% the previous week, while soybean condition was also rated 55%, unchanged from the previous week, according to this week’s USDA NASS Crop Progress report.

Corn in the dough stage was 89%, corn dented was 55% and corn mature was 11%. Soybeans setting pods reached 92%.

To view weekly crop progress reports issued by National Ag Statistics Service offices in individual states, visit http://www.nass.usda.gov/…. Look for the U.S. map in the “Find Data and Reports by” section and choose the state you wish to view in the drop-down menu. Then look for that state’s “Crop Progress & Condition” report.

Clay Patton breaks down the report: https://c1-green.futuripost.com/krvnam/playlist/futures-one-crop-progress-report-corn-condition-drops-7600.html

National Crop Progress Summary
This Last Last 5-Year
Week Week Year Avg.
Corn Dough 89 81 99 97
Corn Dented 55 41 84 77
Corn Mature 11 6 33 24
Soybeans Setting Pods 92 86 100 99
Spring Wheat Harvested 71 55 92 87
Cotton Bolls Opening 43 36 38 37
Cotton Harvested 7 NA 9 6
Sorghum Headed 97 92 99 98
Sorghum Coloring 65 52 78 74
Sorghum Mature 27 24 33 37
Sorghum Harvested 22 21 24 24
Barley Harvested 82 72 91 92
Oats Harvested 89 84 96 95
Rice Harvested 30 21 39 37

**

National Crop Condition Summary
(VP = Very Poor; P = Poor; F = Fair; G = Good; E = Excellent)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VP P F G E VP P F G E VP P F G E
Corn 4 10 31 45 10 3 10 29 47 11 4 8 20 47 21
Soybeans 3 9 33 45 10 3 10 32 46 9 3 7 22 50 18
Cotton 3 15 39 37 6 1 14 37 39 9 13 21 28 29 9
Sorghum 1 5 26 53 15 1 5 27 53 14 5 12 30 42 11
Rice 1 5 25 46 23 1 4 25 47 23 3 22 59 16

**

National Soil Moisture Condition – 48 States
(VS = Very Short; SH = Short; AD = Adequate; SR = Surplus)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR
Topsoil Moisture 10 23 61 6 9 22 62 7 9 19 58 14
Subsoil Moisture 8 22 64 6 7 22 65 6 10 23 58 9

 Corn was rated 57% in good-to-excellent condition, up 1 percentage point from 56% the previous week, and soybean condition was rated 55%, up 2 percentage points from 53% the previous week, according to this week’s USDA NASS Crop Progress report.

Corn in the dough stage was 71% and corn dented was 27%. Soybeans blooming were estimated at 94%, and soybeans setting pods reached 79%.

To view weekly crop progress reports issued by National Ag Statistics Service offices in individual states, visit http://www.nass.usda.gov/….

National Crop Progress Summary
This Last Last 5-Year
Week Week Year Avg.
Corn Dough 71 55 91 87
Corn Dented 27 15 59 46
Soybeans Blooming 94 90 100 99
Soybeans Setting Pods 79 68 94 91
Winter Wheat Harvested 96 93 100 99
Spring Wheat Harvested 38 16 75 65
Cotton Setting Bolls 90 85 90 91
Cotton Bolls Opening 28 24 20 19
Sorghum Headed 86 75 92 90
Sorghum Coloring 41 31 54 52
Sorghum Mature 22 21 26 30
Sorghum Harvested 20 NA 20 20
Barley Harvested 54 31 78 74
Oats Harvested 75 60 88 86
Rice Headed 96 88 98 97
Rice Harvested 15 10 19 18

**

National Crop Condition Summary
(VP = Very Poor; P = Poor; F = Fair; G = Good; E = Excellent)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VP P F G E VP P F G E VP P F G E
Corn 3 10 30 47 10 3 11 30 46 10 4 8 20 47 21
Soybeans 3 10 32 46 9 4 10 33 44 9 3 8 23 49 17
Spring Wheat 1 5 25 60 9 1 6 23 58 12 1 4 21 63 11
Cotton 2 15 40 35 8 2 13 36 41 8 13 18 25 33 11
Sorghum 1 6 27 51 15 1 6 28 52 13 5 12 30 44 9
Barley 1 4 19 61 15 2 5 20 58 15 1 3 18 65 13
Rice 1 5 25 48 21 1 5 26 46 22 4 21 60 15

**

National Soil Moisture Condition – 48 States
(VS = Very Short; SH = Short; AD = Adequate; SR = Surplus)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR
Topsoil Moisture 9 23 61 7 10 26 58 6 12 24 59 5
Subsoil Moisture 8 22 64 6 8 24 62 6 13 26 57 4

China has officially announced it will impose an extra five percent tariff on U.S. soybeans starting on September 1. They’ll also add another 10 percent in duties on other major U.S. crops grown by many American soybean farmers.

The latest details come after China vowed last week that it will retaliate if the U.S. goes through with its original plan to increase tariffs on Chinese goods on September 1. ASA President Davie Stephens says, “ASA has strongly requested an end to the tariffs on U.S. beans for more than a year. This escalation will affect us not because of the increased tariff on our sales, which have been at a virtual standstill for months, but through time.” He says the longevity of the situation means worsening circumstances for soy growers who still have unsold product from this past season and new crops in the ground this season.

Stephens adds that “prospects are narrowing even more now for sales to China, a market that soy growers have valued, nurtured, and respected for many years.” ASA is asking both parties to step up and stop the tariffs and find a resolution that doesn’t target soy growers trapped in the middle. Real people, including Chinese citizens and the American public, along with our soybean growers, are the ones actually feeling the effects of the trade war.

Many producers like to estimate the yield potential of their soybeans well before reaching the end of the season. In contrast with corn, soybeans can easily compensate for abiotic (e.g., temperature, water) or biotic stresses (e.g., insects, diseases). The final number of pods is not determined near the end of the season (beginning of seed filling, R5 stage). For comparison, in corn, the final kernel number is attained during the 2-week period after flowering. Thus, when estimating soybean yield potential, we have to keep in mind that the estimate could change depending on the growth stage at the time the estimate is made and weather conditions. For example, wet periods toward the end of the reproductive period can extend the seed-set period, promoting greater pod production and retention, with larger seed size and heavier seed weight.

From a physiological perspective, the main yield driving forces are: 1) plants per acre, 2) pods per area, 3) seeds per pod, and 4) seed size. Estimating final yield in soybean before harvest can be a very tedious task, but a simplified method can be used for just a basic yield estimate.

When can I start making soybean yield estimates?

There is not a precise time, but as the crop approaches the end of the season (R6, full seed or R7, beginning of maturity) the yield estimate will be more accurate. Still, you can start making soybean yield estimates as soon as the end of the R4 stage, full pod (pods are ¾-inch long on one of the top four nodes), or at the onset of the R5 stage, beginning seed (seeds are 1/8-inch long on one of the top four nodes). Keep in mind that yield prediction is less precise at those early stages.

Is plant variability within the field an issue in soybeans?

Variability between plants relative to the final number of pods and seed size needs to be considered when trying to get an estimation of soybean yields. In addition, variability between areas within the same field needs also to be properly accounted for (e.g. low vs. high areas in the field). Make yield estimations in different areas of the field, at least 6 to 12 different areas. It is important to properly recognize and identify the variation within the field, and then take enough samples from the different areas to fairly represent the entire field. Within each sample section, take consecutive plants within the row to have a good representation.

Conventional approach to estimating soybean yields

In the conventional approach, soybean yield estimates are based on the following components:

  • Total number of pods per acre [number of plants per acre x pods per plant] (1)
  • Total number of seeds per pod (2)
  • Number of seeds per pound (3)
  • Total pounds per bushel, or test weight, which for soybeans is 60 lbs/bu (4)

 

The final equation for the estimation of the potential soybean yield is:

[(1) x (2) / (3)] / (4) = Soybean yield in bushels/acre

Simplified approach to estimating soybean yields

The main difference between the “conventional” and “simplified” approaches is that the conventional approach uses the total number of plants per acre in its calculation; while in the simplified approach, a constant row length is utilized to represent 1/10,000th area of an acre (Figure 1).

For the simplified approach, sample 21 inches of row length in a single row if the soybean plants are spaced in 30-inch rows; in 2 rows if the row spacing is 15 inches; and in 4 rows if the row spacing is 7.5 inches.

Figure 1. In the “simplified” approach to estimating yields, sample 21 inches of row length to equal 1/10,000th of an acre. The number of rows to sample will depend on the row spacing. With 30-inch row spacing, sample one row. With 15-inch row spacing, sample two rows. With 7.5-inch row spacing, sample four rows. Photo by Ignacio Ciampitti, K-State Research and Extension.

 

Repeat this procedure in different sections of the field to properly account for the natural field variability.

What are the driving forces of soybean yield?

1) Total number of pods per acre:

Count the total number of pods (Figure 2) within this constant row length. After counting all the plants within the 21-inch row sections that represent 1/10,000th of an acre, estimate a final pod number per acre. Use a similar procedure in different areas of the field to get a good overall estimate at the field scale. One good criterion is only to consider pod sizes that are larger than ¾ or 1 inch long. Smaller pods can be aborted from this time on in the growing season until harvest.

Figure 2. Total number of pods per plant (only consider the pod sizes larger than ¾ or 1 inch). Photo by Ignacio Ciampitti, K-State Research and Extension.

 

 

2) Total number of seeds per pod:

Soybean plants will have, on average, 2.5 seeds per pod (ranging from 1 to 4 seeds per pod), primarily regulated by the interaction between the environment and the genotypes (Figure 3). Under severe drought and heat stress, a pessimistic approach would be to consider an average of 1-1.5 seeds per pod. This value is just an approximation of the final number of seeds per pod, and can change from the time of estimation until the end of the growing season.

Figure 3. The number of seeds per pod will vary somewhat, depending on the growing environment and genotype. Photo by Ignacio Ciampitti, K-State Research and Extension.

3) Seed size:

Seed size can range from 2,500 (normal to large seed weight) to 3,500 (small seed size) seeds per pound. This season, conditions are mostly favorable in Kansas for promoting large seed sizes. In more stressful years, such as 2012 and 2011, seed size is normally smaller, meaning a larger number for the seeds per pound (e.g. 3,500 seeds per pound). In the simplified estimation approach published by Dr. Casteel, you do not need to actually measure the number of seeds per pound in order to estimate yields, as is done in the conventional approach. Instead, a seed size conversion factor is used. If the conditions are favorable and large seed size is expected, the conversion is 15 units; while if abiotic or biotic stresses are present during the seed-filling period, a seed size factor of 21 units is used. Further details related to the seed size factor can be found in the link to the Purdue University extension article listed at the end of this article.

 

Example of the simplified approach for estimating soybean yields:

Say that we have 120,000 plants/acre in a 30-inch row. Then, we should have around 12 plants in 21 inches of row. In those 12 plants, we have measured on average 22 pods per plant, with a total number of 264 pods (22 x 12).

If we assume a “normal” growing season condition, then the final seeds per pod will be around 2.5, and for the seed size factor, we can assume large seeds, and will use a conversion factor of 15 units.

Equation for a “Favorable” Season:

264 pods x 2.5 seeds per pod / 15 = 44 bushels per acre

For a “droughty” (late reproductive, from R2 to R6 stages) growing season, the final seed number and size will be dramatically affected. Thus, even if the pod number is the same as in a normal season, the yield calculation could be:

Equation for a “Drought” or Short Seed Filling Season:

264 pods x 1.5 seeds per pod / 21 = 19 bushels per acre

Basically, this “simplified approach” relates the total number of pods in a “known” unit area (easily extrapolated to the acre unit), and is affected by the total number of seeds in the pod. This is adjusted by the estimated seed weight, which is affected by two main components: duration of seed fill and rate of dry mass allocation to the seeds.

Corn was rated 57% in good-to-excellent condition, down 1 percentage point from the previous week, and soybean condition was rated 54%, unchanged from the previous week, according to this week’s USDA NASS Crop Progress report. Corn silking was estimated at 78% and soybeans blooming were pegged at 72% as of Sunday, Aug. 4.

Check this page throughout the afternoon for additional highlights from this week’s report.

To view weekly crop progress reports issued by National Ag Statistics Service offices in individual states, visit http://www.nass.usda.gov/…. Look for the U.S. map in the “Find Data and Reports by” section and choose the state you wish to view in the drop-down menu. Then look for that state’s “Crop Progress & Condition” report.

Clay Patton breaks down the report here: https://post.futurimedia.com/krvnam/playlist/futures-one-usda-crop-progress-report-7322.html

National Crop Progress Summary
This Last Last 5-Year
Week Week Year Avg.
Corn Silking 78 58 95 93
Corn Dough 23 13 54 42
Soybeans Blooming 72 57 91 87
Soybeans Setting Pods 37 21 73 63
Winter Wheat Harvested 82 75 89 92
Spring Wheat Harvested 2 NA 12 14
Cotton Squaring 95 86 91 93
Cotton Setting Bolls 59 45 58 61
Sorghum Headed 45 33 67 62
Sorghum Coloring 23 21 30 30
Barley Harvested 3 NA 14 18
Oats Harvested 32 21 49 49
Rice Headed 60 42 79 73

**

National Crop Condition Summary
(VP = Very Poor; P = Poor; F = Fair; G = Good; E = Excellent)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VP P F G E VP P F G E VP P F G E
Corn 3 10 30 47 10 3 9 30 47 11 3 7 19 50 21
Soybeans 3 10 33 45 9 3 10 33 45 9 3 7 23 51 16
Spring Wheat 5 22 63 10 1 5 21 62 11 1 5 20 60 14
Cotton 1 12 33 44 10 1 10 28 46 15 11 21 28 32 8
Sorghum 1 5 26 54 14 1 3 25 59 12 6 12 33 42 7
Barley 5 19 64 12 5 18 62 15 2 19 64 15
Oats 2 6 27 54 11 2 6 26 53 13 4 3 22 58 13
Rice 1 6 25 45 23 1 6 25 48 20 1 7 23 56 13

**

National Soil Moisture Condition – 48 States
(VS = Very Short; SH = Short; AD = Adequate; SR = Surplus)
This Week Last Week Last Year
VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR VS SH AD SR
Topsoil Moisture 9 28 57 6 7 24 61 8 14 28 53 5
Subsoil Moisture 6 23 65 6 4 19 69 8 13 29 54 4

Soybean Management Field Days help growers stay competitive in the global marketplace and increase profits while meeting the world’s growing food and energy needs right here in Nebraska. The field days scheduled for Aug. 13-16 will offer producers research-based information to improve their soybean profitability.

The field days are sponsored by the Nebraska Soybean Checkoff in partnership with Nebraska Extension in the University of Nebraska–Lincoln’s Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, and are funded through soybean checkoff dollars. The efforts of the checkoff are directed by the United Soybean Board promoting progress powered by U.S. farmers.

“Our goal is to help soybean growers maximize productivity and profitability through smart decisions and efficient use of resources. Meeting the world’s growing food and energy needs starts right here in Nebraska – at the 2019 Soybean Management Field Days,” says Victor Bohuslavsky, Nebraska Soybean Board Executive Director.

According to Nebraska Extension Educator Keith Glewen, Soybean Management Field Days provides an opportunity to learn about research-based information. “Producers will see their checkoff dollars at work as they learn about leading technology and ideas.”

The event consists of four stops across the state, each with replicated research, demonstration plots, lunch, and time for questions. Producers can obtain ideas and insight about the challenges they face in producing a quality crop at a profitable price in today’s global economy.

Presenters include university specialists, educators, and industry consultants. Topics include:
– Making Sense of Production Costs and Policy Changes
– Insects, Cover Crops, and Hail: Making Good Management Decisions
– Soybean Weed Control and Cover Crops – What’s Doing All the Work? Rethinking Your Weed Management Program and Cover Crops and Soil Microbial Communities – Possible Effects on Soybean Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling
– Soybean Production and Cover Crops – Seed, Planting, and Irrigation Management Decisions

Agronomists and plant disease and insect specialists will be available to address production-related questions. Participants can bring unknown crop problems for free identification.

The field days will begin with free registration at 9 a.m. and end at 2:30 p.m.

Dates and Locations
The field days begin with 9 a.m. registration and conclude at 2:30 p.m.
– Aug. 13 ― Sargent, Don Fellows Farm From Sargent: Go 2 miles north on Hwy. 183 then turn west on Road 817 and go 1/4 mile. The field day is on the south side of the road. GPS coordinates: 41.669138, -99.370768
– Aug. 14 ― Pilger, Tim and Angie Labenz Farm From Pilger: Go 2 miles south onto Hwy. 15, then 1 mile west on 837 Ave., and 1/4 mile north on 573 Rd. The field day is on the east side of the road. GPS coordinates: 41.967281, -97.078066
– Aug. 15 ― Plymouth, Ross and Judd Boekner Farm From Plymouth: Go 2 miles west on Hwy. 4 and 1/4 mile north on 576th Ave. The field day is on the west side of the road. GPS coordinates: 40.308921,-97.029196
– Aug. 16 ― Waverly, Lynn Neujahr Farm From Waverly: From the intersection of Hwy. 6 and 148th St. go south 2.5 miles on 148th St., then 3/4 mile west on Alvo Rd. The field day is on south side of the road. GPS Coordinates: 40.885317, -96.535462

For more information about the field days and maps to sites, visit http://enrec.unl.edu/soydays, or contact the Nebraska Soybean Board at 800-852-BEAN or Nebraska Extension at 800-529-8030.